Beranda > LAIN-LAIN > DOMAIN NAME SERVER (DNS)

DOMAIN NAME SERVER (DNS)

DOMAIN NAME SERVER (DNS)

Sejarah DNS (Domain Name System)
Sebelum dipergunakannya DNS, jaringan komputer menggunakan HOSTS files yang berisi informasi dari nama komputer dan IP address-nya. Di Internet, file ini dikelola secara terpusat dan di setiap loaksi harus di copy versi terbaru dari HOSTS files, dari sini bisa dibayangkan betapa repotnya jika ada penambahan 1 komputer di jaringan, maka kita harus copy versi terbaru file ini ke setiap lokasi. Dengan makin meluasnya jaringan internet, hal ini makin merepotkan, akhirnya dibuatkan sebuah solusi dimana DNS di desain menggantikan fungsi HOSTS files, dengan kelebihan unlimited database size, dan performace yang baik. DNS adalah sebuah aplikasi services di Internet yang menerjemahkan sebuah domain name ke IP address. Sebagai contoh, www untuk penggunaan di Internet, lalu diketikan anama domain, misalnya: yahoo.com maka akan di petakan ke sebuah IP mis 202.68.0.134. Jadi DNS dapat dianalogikan pada pemakaian buku telepon, dimana orang yang kita kenal berdasarkan nama untuk menghubunginya kita harus memutar nomor telepon di pesawat telepon. Sama persis, host komputer mengirimkan queries berupa nama komputer dan domain name server ke DNS, lalu oleh DNS dipetakan ke IP address.

Pengertian DNS(Domain Name System)
Domain Name System (DNS) adalah distribute database system yang digunakan untuk pencarian nama komputer (name resolution) di jaringan yang mengunakan TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). DNS biasa digunakan pada aplikasi yang terhubung ke Internet seperti web browser atau e-mail, dimana DNS membantu memetakan host name sebuah komputer ke IP address. Selain digunakan di Internet, DNS juga dapat di implementasikan ke private network atau intranet dimana DNS memiliki keunggulan seperti:

  1. Mudah, DNS sangat mudah karena user tidak lagi direpotkan untuk mengingat IP address sebuah komputer cukup host name (nama Komputer).
  2. Konsisten, IP address sebuah komputer bisa berubah tapi host name tidak berubah.
  3. Simple, user hanya menggunakan satu nama domain untuk mencari baik di Internet
    maupun di Intranet.

Teori bekerja DNS
Pengelola dari sistem DNS terdiri dari tiga komponen:

  1. DNS resolver, sebuah program klien yang berjalan di komputer pengguna, yang membuat permintaan DNS dari program aplikasi.
  2. recursive DNS server, yang melakukan pencarian melalui DNS sebagai tanggapan permintaan dari resolver, dan mengembalikan jawaban kepada para resolver tersebut
  3. authoritative DNS server yang memberikan jawaban terhadap permintaan dari recursor, baik dalam bentuk sebuah jawaban, maupun dalam bentuk delegasi (misalkan: mereferensikan ke authoritative DNS server lainnya).

DNS dapat disamakan fungsinya dengan buku telepon. Dimana setiap komputer di jaringan Internet memiliki host name (nama komputer) dan Internet Protocol (IP) address. Secara umum, setiap client yang akan mengkoneksikan komputer yang satu ke komputer yang lain, akan menggunakan host name. Lalu komputer anda akan menghubungi DNS server untuk mencek host name yang anda minta tersebut berapa IP address-nya. IP address ini yang digunakan untuk mengkoneksikan komputer anda dengan komputer lainnya.

Struktur DNS
Domain Name Space merupakan sebuah hirarki pengelompokan domain berdasarkan nama, yang terbagi menjadi beberapa bagian diantaranya:

a) Root Level Domain
Domain ditentukan berdasarkan tingkatan kemampuan yang ada di struktur hirarki yang
disebut dengan level. Level paling atas di hirarki disebut dengan root domain. Root domain di ekspresikan berdasarkan periode dimana lambang untuk root domain adalah (“.”).
b) Top Level Domain (TLD)
Top Level Domain adalah domain pada level teratas di bawah root (.). Ada tiga
pengelompokkan Top Level Domain:

1. Domain Generik
Terdiri atas 7 domain yaitu :
a. com
Untuk organisasi komersial. contoh: ibm.com, sun.com.
b. net
Untuk organisasi/perusahaan penyedia layanan jaringan/Internet. contoh: internic.net, nsf.net.
c. gov
Untuk lembaga/organisasi pemerintahan. contoh: whitehouse.gov, nasa.gov.
d. mil
Untuk badan/organisasi militer. contoh: army.mil.
e. org
Untuk organisasi non-komersial. contoh: linux.org.
f. edu
Untuk lembaga pendidikan. contoh: mit.edu, berkeley.edu.
g. int
Untuk organisasi Internasional. contoh: nato.int.
Selain 7 domain di atas ada lagi 7 domain baru dari ICANN (www.icann.org) yaitu:
h. aero
Untuk industri atau perusahaan udara.
i. biz
Untuk perusahaan atau lembaga bisnis.
j. coop
Untuk perusahaan atau lembaga kooperatif
k. info
Untuk penggunaan umum.
l. museum
Untuk museum.
m. name
Untuk registrasi bagi penggunaan individual/personal.
n. pro
Untuk para profesional seperti: akuntan, dan lain-lain.

2. Domain Negara
Merupakan standar pembagian geografis berdasarkan kode negara. Contoh: id untuk
Indonesia, au untuk Australia, uk untuk Inggris, dan lain-lain. Domain negara ini dapat dan
umumnya diturunkan lagi ke level-level di bawahnya yang diatur oleh NIC dari masing-
masing negara, untuk Indonesia yaitu IDNIC. Contoh level bawah dari id yaitu net.id, co.id,
web.id.

3. Domain Arpa
Merupakan domain untuk jaringan ARPAnet. Tiap domain yang tergabung ke Internet berhak memiliki name-space .in-addr.arpa sesuai dengan alamat IP-nya.

Second-Level Domains

Second-level domains dapat berisi host dan domain lain, yang disebut dengan subdomain. Untuk contoh: Domain Zulfanruri, zulfanruri.com terdapat komputer (host) seperti apel.zulfanruri.com dan subdomain kates.zulfanruri.com. Subdomain kates.bujangan.com juga terdapat komputer (host) seperti apel.training.bujangan.com.

Host Names
Domain name yang digunakan dengan host name akan menciptakan fully qualified domain name (FQDN) untuk setiap komputer. Sebagai contoh, jika terdapat kates.zulfanruri.com, dimana kates adalah host name dan zulfanruri.com adalah domain name.

Sumber :
KOMUNITAS PELAJAR ILMU KOMPUTER INDONESIA
http://mr-amateur.co.cc

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